Use minute paper to evaluate student participation

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The minute paper is a formative assessment strategy whereby students are asked to take one minute (or more) to answer two questions: what was the most important thing they learned in class today; and what still remains unclear to them. The goal is for the instructor to get a feel for whether students captured the most important points, and to know which areas need further expansion. In a blended course, this technique can be adapted either to end a face-to-face class and help plan e.g., An online discussion to explore unclear points OR can be used at the end of e.g., A week of online activities, to help the instructor plan for the face-to-face meeting or next week’s online activities.

Link to example artifact(s)

The Center for the Enhancement of Learning & Teaching at Tufts University has prepared a handout on this strategy. In this handout, you will find sample instructions:

UCF’s Dr. Kelvin Thompson adapts the one minute paper idea for collecting formative feedback from students in his online graduate course in educational technology.

Link to scholarly reference(s)

Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques. 2nd Edition. Chicago. Retrieved from:,miniSiteCd-JBHIGHERED,navId-812177.html

Carlson, A. (2010). Muddiest point. In Western Washington University Center for Instructional Innovation and Assessment (Ed). Classroom assessment techniques online video modules. Retrieved from:

Ives, C. (2014). Daydreaming or deep in thought? Using formative assessment to evaluate student participation. Retrieved from:

Stead, D.R. (2005), A review of the one-minute paper, Active Learning in Higher Education, 6, 118-131.


Bali, Maha (2015). Use minute paper to evaluate student participation. In Chen, B., deNoyelles, A., & Thompson, K. (Eds.), Teaching Online Pedagogical Repository. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida Center for Distributed Learning. Retrieved March 24, 2018 from

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